The reigning La Liga champions were hopeful that they would be able to register the Turkish international immediately following the long term injury to Rafinha.
The Spanish football federation (RFEF) were open to registering Turan as a replacement for Rafinha which is permissible under their regulations however, FIFA have forbidden the swap from going ahead.
The RFEF has also been forced to revise the ruling on Spanish league replacing long-term injuries as it does not fall into line with FIFA guidelines limiting the transfer and registration of new signings to both summer and winter windows.
Barcelona will meet with the RFEF regarding taking FIFA to the Court of Arbitration of Sport (CAS) over the latest ruling.
Turan is however, almost certain not to play until the winter transfer window following the latest FIFA decision.